Currently, digitalisation has substantially changed the world, where advanced and innovative digital technologies cause massive implications in every aspect of human life. This digital revolution can be considered as an opportunity or threat to all organisations in all industries and sectors via radically reshaping their traditional processes, products and services, and strategies (Beliaevaetal., 2019; Eliaetal., 2020; Jafari-Sadeghietal., 2021; Karimi & Walter,2021; Ladeiraetal., 2019; Schulte-Holthaus & Kuckertz,2020). Thus, it is not surprising that the dissemination of digital technologies has created a promising context for entrepreneurship and significantly motivated entrepreneurs to exploit these technologies in creating new businesses or in conducting their business operations (Beliaevaetal., 2019; Eliaetal., 2020; Nambisan,2017; Nambisan & Baron,2021; Rusu & Roman,2020).
Digitalisation provides entrepreneurs with numerous opportunities to integrate digital technologies in all the entrepreneurial activities allowing them to develop new products, services, processes, and business models, reveal new markets and opportunities, minimise costs, and better engage with stakeholders (Beliaevaetal., 2019; Eliaetal., 2020; Kollmannetal., 2021; Krausetal., 2019; Ladeiraetal., 2019; Rusu & Roman,2020; Sahutetal., 2021). As stated by Nambisan(2017), “digital technologies herald a new era in entrepreneurship, one in which the traditional ways and forms of pursuing entrepreneurial opportunities are increasingly questioned and refashioned.” Consequently, because of the convergence of entrepreneurial activities and digital technologies, a new subcategory of traditional entrepreneurship has emerged, namely digital entrepreneurship (Hulletal., 2007; Karimi & Walter,2021; Krausetal., 2019; Nambisan,2017; Recker & vonBriel,2020).
According to Fernandesetal.(2022) and Baigetal.(2022), there is little agreement or clarity regarding the purpose, characteristics, and definition of digital entrepreneurship. For example, digital entrepreneurship can be defined as “a subcategory of entrepreneurship in which some or all of what would be physical in a traditional organisation has been digitised” (Hulletal., 2007). For Davidson and Vaast(2010), digital entrepreneurship can be considered as “the practice of pursuing new venture opportunities presented by new media and internet technologies”. Therefore, it is possible to consider digital entrepreneurship as the fusion of traditional entrepreneurship and the utilisation of modern digital technologies available in the digital era to carry out all or some parties of business activities (Gabrielssonetal., 2022; Krausetal., 2019). Generally, digital entrepreneurship can be viewed as a type of entrepreneurship that based on the utilisation of digital technologies to manage the business and to convert products, services, or a significant portion of the business digitally (Hairetal., 2012; Krausetal., 2019; Permatasari & Anggadwita,2019).
In the past few years, digital entrepreneurship has been considered a rapidly growing field of research and has received the attention of many scholars, practitioners, and policymakers (Beliaevaetal., 2019; Jafari-Sadeghietal., 2021; Krausetal., 2019). However, despite the increasing acknowledges of digital entrepreneurship's significance, this concept is so far in its early stages in entrepreneurship research, and little is known about its determinants (Beliaevaetal., 2019; Darmanto etal., 2022; Faranietal., 2017; Jafari-Sadeghietal., 2021; Miretal., 2022; Nambisan,2017). Additionally, the factors that motivate individuals to become digital entrepreneurs and influence their digital entrepreneurial intentions, as well as the requirements for the successful digital entrepreneur are not fully known (Darmanto etal., 2022; Duttaetal., 2015; Faranietal., 2017; Krausetal., 2019; Miretal., 2022).
Prior researchers have demonstrated that entrepreneurial intention is a powerful predictor of entrepreneurial behaviour and a prerequisite for engaging in a business venture (Changetal., 2020; Huangetal., 2022; Yehetal., 2020). Therefore, developing entrepreneurial intention is the first step in the entrepreneurial process since it reflects an individual's willingness and commitment to create a new business, and any more entrepreneurial moves would be impossible without it (Elnadi & Gheith,2021; Salhieh & Al-Abdallat,2022). According to Thompson(2009), entrepreneurial intention refers to “self-acknowledged conviction by a person that they intend to set up a new business venture and consciously plan to do so at some point in the future”. The higher a person's intention, the more likely he or she is to become an entrepreneur (Koeetal., 2021). Since digital entrepreneurship is considered a branch of conventional entrepreneurship, and the two have a lot in common (Younisetal., 2020), digital entrepreneurial intention can be described as the propensity of an individual to engage in a new technology-based venture (Changetal., 2020; Huangetal., 2022; Wangetal., 2016). Digital entrepreneurial intention indicates an individual's mental state and behavioural characteristics that reflect his or her willingness and determination to utilise digital technologies to start his or her new technology-based business at some point in the future (Dutot & VanHorne,2015; Salhieh & Al-Abdallat,2022).
While appraising literature, factors impacting digital entrepreneurial intention have received substantial consideration from many researchers. Several studies have provided ample evidence that personality traits play a significant role in developing digital entrepreneurial intention. Some of these studies (e.g., Shimolietal., 2020; Wangetal., 2016; Yehetal., 2020) have applied the five-factor model of personality. According to this model, entrepreneurial intention can be predicted by five general (broad) personality traits, namely extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience (Costa & McCrae,1992). However, some scholars (e.g., Çeliketal., 2021; Laouitietal., 2022; Leutneretal., 2014; Postigoetal., 2021) have argued that predicting entrepreneurial intention using only five general personality traits is not sufficient since other personality traits may have a significant impact on entrepreneurial intention. Therefore, several previous studies have advocated dividing the main five general personality traits into specific (narrow) traits to better predict entrepreneurial intention. Some of the specific (narrow) personality traits that have been examined in digital entrepreneurship previous studies are need for achievement, risk-taking, locus of control, innovativeness, creativity, proactiveness, self-efficacy, self-esteem, positive thinking.
However, there is limited evidence on how other narrow personal characteristics such as entrepreneurial alertness, innovativeness, passion, curiosity, and digital competency can impact digital entrepreneurial intention. Within entrepreneurship literature, it has been reported by many researchers (e.g., Akhteretal., 2022; Anwar & Saleem,2019; Ayed,2020; Bhattietal., 2021; Bueckmann-Diegolietal., 2020; Dinisetal., 2013; Huetal., 2018; Hu & Ye,2017; Lietal., 2020; Lietal., 2015; Lu & Wang,2018; Nasipetal., 2017; Neneh,2019; Obschonkaetal., 2018; Salhieh & Al-Abdallat,2022; Urban,2020; Wathanakometal., 2020) that innovativeness and entrepreneurial alertness are significantly associated with entrepreneurial intention in various research contexts. Additionally, entrepreneurial passion and entrepreneurial curiosity are among the personal traits that have been recognised as important traits for a successful entrepreneur, nevertheless their role in shaping entrepreneurial intention is still underexplored in previous studies in general (Biraglia & Kadile,2017; Jeraj & Antoncic,2013; Jeraj & Marič, 2013; Karimi,2020; Montiel-Campos,2018; Peljkoetal., 2016; Syedetal., 2020), and particularly in digital entrepreneurship. Furthermore, in today's digital era, digital competence has emerged in the field of entrepreneurship and has been acknowledged as a critical factor for a successful digital entrepreneur (Oggeroetal., 2020; Reisetal., 2020). It is also worth noting that only a limited number of studies have investigated the role of entrepreneurial alertness, innovativeness, passion, curiosity, and digital competency in developing digital entrepreneurial intention among university students in Saudi Arabia.
Thus, the primary research aim of this study is to contribute to closing these gaps, investigating the impact of individual characteristics such as digital innovativeness, alertness, passion, curiosity, and digital competence in shaping digital entrepreneurial intention among undergraduate university students in Saudi Arabia. The proposed model explores the direct effect of digital innovativeness and entrepreneurial alertness on digital entrepreneurial intention. Moreover, it investigates how entrepreneurial passion, curiosity, and digital competence can stimulate students’ digital innovativeness and entrepreneurial alertness. Finally, the proposed model examines the mediation role that entrepreneurial alertness and innovativeness play in the relationship between entrepreneurial passion, entrepreneurial curiosity, and digital competence on one side and digital entrepreneurial intention on the other.
In this way, this study attempts to provide digital entrepreneurship existing literature with the following contributions. First, the study provides a review of digital entrepreneurship's previous studies by analysing and identifying the significant determinants of digital entrepreneurship intention. Second, the study explores the impact of narrow personal characteristics such as innovativeness, alertness, passion, curiosity, and digital competency on digital entrepreneurial intention. These factors have been neglected in previous studies and rarely collectively investigated in a single model. Third, thepresent study is the first to explore the mediation role that entrepreneurial alertness and innovativeness play in the relationship between entrepreneurial passion, entrepreneurial curiosity, and digital competence on one side and digital entrepreneurial intention on the other. Finally, despite the popularity of digital entrepreneurship, little is known about personal characteristics that trigger digital entrepreneurial intentions among undergraduate university students in Saudi Arabia. Hence, exploring how to develop digital entrepreneurial intentions among undergraduate university students in a developing country such as Saudi Arabia is an important contribution of this study.
Saudi Arabia, is a developing country with the most prosperous economy among Middle Eastern and North African countries and its economy is one of the world's top 20 economies (Elnadi & Gheith,2021; McAdametal., 2019, 2020). Recently, the Saudi Arabia government is attempting to restructure the country's economy by reducing its reliance on oil revenues, accelerating the share of SMEs to GDP, as well as decreasing the unemployment rate and these targets were highlighted in Saudi Arabia's Vision 2030 plan (Choukiretal., 2019; Elnadietal., 2020; Mahmud,2020; McAdametal., 2019, 2020). Therefore, the government acknowledged the significance of entrepreneurship in shaping the economy.
One of the key goals of Saudi Arabia's Vision 2030 plan is to stimulate entrepreneurship growth in general and particularly digital entrepreneurship among Saudis. The CEO of Saudi Entrepreneurial Ecosystem Lab stated that “the government has injected US$19.2 billion stimulus package to boost the private sector, an enormous part of which was allocated to different programs and initiatives supporting the SME sector” (Elnadietal., 2020). Regarding digital entrepreneurship, the Saudi government has developed a strong information and communication infrastructure and has created numerous strategies that promote digital start-ups and foster their success, including educational programs, business incubators, training institutions (Almani,2019; Mahmud,2020).
To achieve the aim of the study, this paper is structured as follows. In the next section, previous studies related to digital entrepreneurial intention are presented. In Section3, the research hypotheses are discussed. Then, the research methodology and data analysis are demonstrated in Section4 and Section5, respectively. Then, a discussion of the research findings is presented in Section6, followed by the theoretical and practical implications in Section7. Finally, the conclusion and research limitations are highlighted in Section8.
Prior researchers have devoted considerable attention to exploring the factors affecting an individual's decision to engage in a technology-based venture. Previous studies have considered digital entrepreneurial intention a crucial element since it is the strongest predictor of entrepreneurial behaviour and reflects an individual's willingness to engage in entrepreneurial activities. Digital entrepreneurial intention demonstrates an individual's mental state and behavioural characteristics that
Entrepreneurship is strongly connected with innovation and creativity (Syedetal., 2020; Wathanakometal., 2020). Both creativity and innovation are critical to entrepreneurship and are considered among the significant traits of successful entrepreneurs (Bell,2019; Dinisetal., 2013; Lian & Yen,2017).
While in certain researches, the terms “creativity” and “innovativeness” are used synonymously (Scott & Bruce,1994), creativity is considered a key component of innovativeness and the initial
Sample and procedure
To empirically test and validate the developed hypotheses and the research model with less sample bias, we developed an online questionnaire using QuestionPro (an online survey platform) that included existing measurement scales from previous studies to ensure valid and reliable measurement. This study directed to a homogeneous sample consisting of undergraduate business students during the academic year 2020–2021 who had completed their entrepreneurship course and are close to graduation at
The proposed model and hypotheses have been examined using the partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). Compared with the covariance-based structural equation modelling (CB-SEM), PLS is more suitable for small sample size and complex models and normally distributed data is not a basic requirement for the analysis (Hairetal., 2019). Moreover, PLS-SEM is more appropriate for this study as the objective is to explain the causal relationships among the variables rather than
The aim of this paper is to enhance our understanding of how individual characteristics, such as entrepreneurial digital innovativeness, entrepreneurial alertness, entrepreneurial passion, entrepreneurial curiosity, and digital competence, can stimulate digital entrepreneurial intention among undergraduate students in Saudi Arabia. These variables have all been regarded as relevant in entrepreneurship previous studies separately, but they have never been addressed together in a single model.
Based on the findings obtained from the data analysis, this study provides some academic implications that contribute to the existing digital entrepreneurship literature on the role of individual characteristics in developing digital entrepreneurial intentions among university students.
In this study, a review of the literature was conducted to analyse and identify the various theoretical models that have been used to investigate digital entrepreneurship intentions, as well as the significant
Conclusion and research limitations
In conclusion, this study aims to explore how individual characteristics can trigger students’ intention to engage in a technology-based venture. To achieve this aim, this study developed a model including the five constructs of entrepreneurial alertness, digital innovativeness, passion, curiosity, and digital competency. Based on data collected online from 219 undergraduate business administration students in Saudi Arabia, the results indicate that entrepreneurial alertness and digital
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
CRediT authorship contribution statement
Moustafa Elnadi: Conceptualization, Methodology, Formal analysis, Resources, Data curation, Writing – original draft, Writing – review & editing, Visualization. Mohamed Hani Gheith: Conceptualization, Methodology, Formal analysis, Writing – review & editing.
Declaration of Competing Interest
The authors state that they have no conflict of interest to declare.
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Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, Volume 31, 2022, Article 100403
Contributing to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals of the 2030 Agenda is vital for ensuring the future of our society. The sports sector presents opportunities through entrepreneurship to contribute to them. However, little is known about how Physical Activity and Sports Sciences (PASS) students through university education could develop a sustainable mindset to be an entrepreneur. This research analyzes the conditions that generate high and low levels of sustainable entrepreneurial intentions in PASS students. The sample comprises 374 PASS students, with a mean age of 20.80 years (SD=3.19). A structured questionnaire was administered. The results indicate that it is essential that PASS students perceive themselves as capable of creating and managing a sustainable business efficiently (condition present in all solutions). In addition, they should possess high levels of social and civic values (most explanatory solution: 47% of cases). Besides, is important that they have a positive attitude towards sustainable entrepreneurship and they feel supported by their immediate environment (second most explanatory solution: 36% of cases). Finally, some practical implications for encouraging sustainable entrepreneurial intentions of PASS students are presented.
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The manufacturing landscape is undergoing unprecedented change, focusing on incorporating digital technologies to maximize operational efficiency and profitability. Myriad potential benefits of adopting incumbent digital and advanced technologies are attracting the interest of entrepreneurs and practitioners across the world. Nonetheless, Industry 4.0 (I4.0) adoption needs rigorous efforts for effective implementation. In academic literature, the potential roadblocks of I4.0 have already been identified and analyzed. However, its adoption is not easy or straightforward; entrepreneurs are concerned about Industry 4.0 adoption. Stringent efforts from all stakeholders can make its adoption a success. The present research provides a holistic approach to analyzing behavioral patterns towards I4.0 adoption. Behavioral Reasoning Theory (BRT) is used to analyze behavioral intentions towards I4.0 adoption. The data of 215 respondents was collected from manufacturing industries. It is found that the construct Reasons For (RF) is positively related to attitude and intention, while Reasons Against (RA) did not show any significant relationship with intention. This research delivers insights to industrialists, entrepreneurs, management, and policymakers to analyze the behavioral patterns towards I4.0 adoption. The results indicate the full mediation of attitude between reasons against and intention. Also, full mediation of reasons against between value and attitude is examined.
Research articlePopular culture texts in education: The effect of tales transformed into children's media on critical thinking and media literacy skills
Thinking Skills and Creativity, Volume 47, 2023, Article 101202
This study focuses on the effect of using postmodern tale films, which are based on the transformation of a text and enable multiple reading, as an educational tool on critical thinking and media literacy skills. In the study, which was structured as an embedded mixed design in order to achieve this aim, qualitative data were embedded in the experimental intervention and it was aimed that one data type play a supporting role for the other. The study group consists of 43 students studying at the 7th grade in an official secondary school in the province of Mus, in the fall semester of the 2021–2022 academic year. During the 8-week application period, while activities designed with media contents including the transformation of tales were practiced in the experimental group (n=21), activities in the current Turkish textbook were practiced in the control group (n=22). In this period, “critical thinking skills test” developed by Eğmirand Ocak(2016), “media literacy scale sensitive to entertainment purpose” developed by the authors, semi-structured interview forms, and semi-structured observation form were used as data collection tools. It was concluded that the application designed with activities in which media contents containing tale transformations were used made a significant difference in favor of the experimental group on critical thinking and media literacy skills of students. In addition to this, observations made during these activities and products created by students showed that reflective and creative thinking skills were also positively affected in relation to critical thinking and media literacy skills. Quantitative data showing the results of these effects are supported by qualitative data helping to understand in which direction and how these effects occur.
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Thinking Skills and Creativity, Volume 47, 2023, Article 101139
The Alternate Uses Test (AUT) is one of the most popular divergent thinking tasks and commonly used to measure creativity. Researchers using AUT often pick an everyday object and instruct participants to think of possible uses for it. Yet, the word frequency of the selected objects may impact the outcomes. The present study investigates the variation in the fluency scores from AUT in terms of word frequency values of the selected everyday object. We expected a positive relationship between the word frequency metrics and the fluency scores when other potential factors are controlled such as time-on-task, explicit instructions, the form of task administration and a number of various psycholinguistic characteristics. The mean effect (average fluency score) is 9.08, 95% [7.54, 10.61] from 114 effects from 31 studies. There was a significant interaction effect of Time-on-Task and Word Frequency (b = -.01, t (3.05) = -3.51, p = .038). These findings indicate that word frequency is correlated with fluency scores under strict time conditions, and this effect seems to disappear with lenient time conditions. The results are discussed based on the recommended assessment practices in the literature.
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Thinking Skills and Creativity, Volume 47, 2023, Article 101225
The purpose of this study is to investigate the antecedents and consequences of creative and innovative thinking in educational environments. The research group of this study consists of 110 students continuing undergraduate education in Turkey. The data were collected using a personal information form and three scales. As a result of this study, extrinsic motivation is a direct antecedent variable for creative thinking dispositions and innovative thinking skills, learning and performance-approach goal orientation is an indirect antecedent variable. Innovation search and inquisitive and opportunity-oriented dimensions are determinants of engagement. Supporting creative thinking dispositions, and innovative thinking skills does not affect academic achievement. Examining the variables associated with creative and innovative thinking will shed light on learning processes from many aspects such as creativity, innovation, commitment, performance, product development, achievement, and motivation.
Research articleInvestigating the impact of a possibility-thinking integrated project-based learning history course on high school students' creativity, learning motivation, and history knowledge
Thinking Skills and Creativity, Volume 47, 2023, Article 101214
Due to the rigid teaching methods commonly used in social studies, especially in history education, students' learning motivation and active learning may be hindered. Thus, many students become passive recipients of historical knowledge and witnesses of historical events. Identifying and reconsidering the teaching methods used in history education is crucial. In response to the emergent call to revitalize history courses, the current study developed the PT-PBL framework, which systematically integrated Possibility Thinking and Project-based Learning into a high school history course. 140 participants aged 15–16 years old were recruited. Two classes of students were assigned to the experimental group (PT-PBL learning, N=75), whereas the other two classes were assigned to the comparison group (didactic teaching approach, N=65). A quasi-experimental design was used to investigate the impact of experimental teaching on students' learning motivation, creativity, and mastery level of history knowledge in history courses. The results indicated that the students in the experimental group significantly outperformed the students in the comparison group in creativity (fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration) and learning motivation (self-efficacy). Nonetheless, no statistically significant difference was found between both groups' mastery level of history knowledge. Educational implications and recommendations for future research and practices are offered.
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