What is Concrete? Composition & Types of Concrete (2023)

An ever-evolving world needs constantly developing construction ways. In the present world, concrete is one of the most widely used construction materials. This can be due not alone to the large choice of applications that it offers, however, besides, its behavior, strength, affordability, durability, and flexibility play vital roles. Therefore, constructing-building works have faith in concrete as a secure, strong, and simple object. It is utilized in all sorts of buildings (from residential to multi-story workplace blocks) and infrastructure comes (roads, bridges, etc). Concrete is used for the development of foundations, columns, beams, slabs, and different load-bearing components. In this article, we are going to cover the following topics:

What is Concrete?

Composition of Basic Concrete Mix

Types of Concrete Mix

So, then let us dig into the details:

What is Concrete?

Concrete Definition:Concrete, an artificial stone-like mass, is the composite material that is created by mixing binding material (cementor lime) along with the aggregate (sand, gravel, stone, brick chips, etc.), water, admixtures, etc in specific proportions. The strength and quality are dependent on the mixing proportions.

The formula for producing concrete from its ingredients can be presented in the following equation:

Concrete = Binding Material + Fine & Coarse Aggregate + Water + Admixture (optional)

Concrete is a very necessary and useful material for construction work. Once all the ingredients -cement, aggregate, and water unit of measurement mixed inside the required proportions, the cement and water begin a reaction with one another to bind themselves into a hardened mass. This hardens therock-like mass in the concrete.

Concrete is powerful, easy to create, and can be formed into varied shapes and sizes. Besides that, it is reasonable, low cost, and instantly mixed. It is designed to allow reliable and high-quality fast-track construction. Structures designed with the concrete unit of measurement are plenty durable and should be designed to face up to earthquakes, hurricanes, typhoons, and tornadoes. This is an incredible advancement. With all the scientific advances there are in this world, there still has not been a way of preventing nature's injury.

Composition of Basic Concrete Mix

If we evaluate the concrete composition to see what concrete is made of, we can see there are four basic ingredients within the concrete material mix:

  • Binding materials like cement or lime
  • Aggregates or Inert Materials
    • Fine aggregate (sand)
    • Coarse aggregate (stone chips, brick chips)
  • Water
  • Admixture (e.g. Pozzolana)

A brief description of the concrete ingredients is given below.

(Video) Concrete manufacturing / Composition of concrete / Type of concrete / Concrete manufacturing process

Binding Materials

Binding material is the main element of a concrete material mix. Cement is the most commonly used binding material. Lime could also be used. When water is mixed with the cement, a paste is created that coats the aggregates within the mix. The paste hardens, binds the aggregates, and forms a stone-like substance.


Sand is a fine mixture. Gravel or crushed stone is the coarse mixture in most mixes.


Water is required to with chemicals react with the cement (hydration) and to supply workability with the concrete. The number of water combined in pounds compared with the number of cement is named the water/cement quantitative relation. The lower the w/c quantitative relation, the stronger the concrete. (Higher strength, less permeability)

Types of Concrete Mix

Concrete is employed for various projects starting from little homemade comes to large subject field buildings and structures. It is used for sidewalks, basements, floors, walls, and pillars at the side of several alternative uses. Many sorts of concrete are utilized in the development works.

Based on the variations in concrete materials and purposes, concrete can be classified into three basic categories-

  1. Lime Concrete
  2. Cement Concrete
  3. Reinforced Cement Concretes

There are four concrete sorts to settle on from counting on the work being done. Such as-

  1. Dry Ready Mix
  2. Ready Mix
  3. Bulk Dry Materials
  4. Transit Mix

There are other various types of concrete for different applications that are created by changing the proportions of the main ingredients. Such as:

  • Regular Concrete
  • High-strength Concrete
  • Stamped Concrete
  • High-Performance Concrete
  • Self-consolidating Concretes
  • Vacuum Concrete
  • Shotcrete
  • Roller-Compacted Concrete
  • Glass Concrete
  • Asphalt Concrete
  • Rapid Strength Concrete
  • Polymer Concrete
  • Limecrete
  • Light-Transmitting Concrete

Brief Descriptions of all these 21 types of concrete are discussed below:

Lime Concrete

Lime concrete uses Lime as the binding material. Lime is usually mixed with surki and khoa or stones in the proportion 1:2:5 unless otherwise specified. The khoa or stones are soaked in water before mixing. Lime concrete is used mainly in foundation and terrace roofing.

Advantages of Lime Concrete

  • Lime concrete is cheaper than cement concrete.
  • Lime concrete is more workable than cement concrete.
  • Lime concrete has a lower heat of hydration, which makes it suitable for mass concrete works.
  • Lime concrete has good resistance to fire.
  • Lime concrete has good resistance to sulfate attack.

Disadvantages of Lime Concrete

  • Lime concrete has a lower strength than cement concrete.
  • Lime concrete is not as durable as cement concrete.
  • Lime concrete is susceptible to attack by frost.

Cement Concrete

Most engineering construction uses cement concrete composites as the main building material. It consists of cement, sand, brick chips, or stone chips of the required size. The usual proportion is 1:2:4 or 1:3:6.After mixing the required amounts of concrete materials, the mix is cured with water for 28 days for proper strength building.

Cement concrete is a versatile construction material with a wide range of applications. It can be used in structural applications such as beams, columns, slabs, and foundations. It can also be used in non-structural applications such as paving, curbing, and landscaping. Cement concrete is also a popular choice for precast applications such as pipes, paving stones, and sewer systems.

The main advantages of cement concrete are its strength, durability, and fire resistance. It is also relatively low maintenance and can be easily repaired if damaged. However, cement concrete is a relatively heavy material and can be difficult to work with. It is also susceptible to cracking and can be damaged by extreme weather conditions.

(Video) What is Concrete?

Reinforced Cement Concretes

For enhancing the tensile strength of concrete, steel reinforcements are added. Sometimes, RCC is prestressed under compression to eliminate or reduce tensile stresses. The resulting concrete is known as Prestressed Concrete.

The word 'Reinforced' means 'strengthened' or 'supported'. Reinforced Cement Concrete, therefore, is a composite material consisting of concrete and steel reinforcements.

The steel reinforcements used in RCC can be in the form of rods, bars, wires, meshes, etc. The concrete is cast around these steel reinforcement bars or rods to form the desired shape. The steel reinforcement bars are placed in such a way that they provide enough support to the concrete against the expected loads.

The steel reinforcement bars are placed in such a way that they provide enough support to the concrete against the expected loads.

Dry Ready Mix Concrete

This is the combination that may be found at most home improvement and hardware stores. It comes in baggage typically starting from sixty to eighty pounds. Dry ready mix is simple to combine and this is often the combination that almost all homemade comes would require. The tools needed for the mixture are a bucket or cart, shovel or hoe, trowel, and a measured quantity of water.

Ready MixConcrete

The distinction between dry ready-mix and ready-mix concrete is that the water is already supplementary to ready combine. This concrete comes pre-mixed and is for larger homemade comes or for people who do not need to combine their own concrete. It is typically brought in an exceedingly little trailer, typically with an intermixture drum connected to stay it dampish and mixed. The ready combine is usually costlier and might be troublesome to search out. It additionally should be used quickly as an alternative it will set while not unfolding properly.

Bulk Dry Materials

It is price effective to purchase dry materials in bulk. This may let the project be custom-built to the particular wants and usage of the concrete. The drawback of shopping in bulk is that there will be much space for the materials to be kept before getting used. The materials will over probably be delivered to the positioning.

(Video) Different Grades of Concrete and their Uses in Building Construction

Transit MixConcrete

This is the mix that almost all cast-in-place concrete comes can use. it is typically trucked in using concrete trucks that have a massive drum that keeps the concrete from setting up while in transit. It permits for one continuous pour so fewer seams and stronger concrete overall. For big comes, transit combine is a far additional value effective than getting bulk materials or ready-mix since in each those the workforce to combine the concrete would get to be patterned into the value.

Regular Concrete

The most common type used is regular concrete which is referred to as traditional weight concrete or traditional strength concrete. This pertains to the concrete that is promptly on the market within the retailer’s marketplace for personal and residential usage. This includes usage directions that are written within the packaging of the product. It utilizes sand and different materials to function as aggregates and is consolidated in temporary vessels.

High-strength Concrete

High-strength concrete combined possesses compressive strength that is over six thousand pounds per area unit. This can be processed by lowering the water-cement quantitative relation to a minimum of 0.35 or lower. The low water-cement quantitative relation makes this sort of cementless feasible. to combat this weakness, superplasticizers are other than the present concrete combine.

Stamped Concrete

Stamped concrete is a subject area concrete wherever realistic patterns almost like natural stones, granites, and tiles will be obtained by inserting the impression of skilled stamping pads. This stamping is applied to the concrete once it is in its plastic condition. totally different coloring stains and texture work can finally provide an end that's terribly almost like costlier natural stones. A high aesthetic look will be obtained from a sealed end economically. This is often utilized in the development of driveways, interior floors, and patios.

High-Performance Concrete

High-performance concrete refers to a freshly developed concrete combine that has properties that are a notch higher compared to regular concrete mixes. This includes increased strength, durability, and workability, simplicity of usage, compaction while not segregation, long-run mechanical properties, porosity, density, toughness, and volume stability. Air-entrained agents may be utilized to customize this concrete combine for severe environments.

Read More:Advantages of High-Performance Concrete

Self-Consolidating Concrete

The concrete combined once placed can compact by its own weight and is considered self-consolidated concrete. No vibration should be provided for an equivalent individually. This combination has higher workability. The slumping price is going to be between 650 and 750. This concrete because of its higher workability is named flowing concrete. In the areas wherever there is thick reinforcement, self – consolidating concrete works best.

Vacuum Concretes

Concrete with a water content of quite the desired amount is poured into the formwork. The surplus water is then removed out with the assistance of an air pump while not looking forward to the concrete to endure setting. Thus, the concrete structure or the platform is going to be able to use earlier in comparison with traditional construction techniques. These concretes can attain their 28 days compressive strength within an amount of 10 days and therefore the crushing strength of this structure is 25 you bigger compared with the standard concrete sorts. To learn more about vacuum concrete read-Vacuum Concrete | Definition, Procedure and Advantages


Shotcreting refers to a method within which compressed air forces mortar or concrete through a tube and taps onto a surface at a high speed and forms structural or non-structural parts of buildings. Shotcrete is currently applied to the wet-mix method and has gained universal acceptance in several countries. In wet-mix application cement, aggregate, admixture, and water are mixed along before being wired through a hose and atmospherically designed. On the opposite hand, in dry-mix applications cement, aggregate, and admixture are mixed along, and sent pneumatically through a tube so, at the tap via a water ring, water is injected equally throughout the combination because it is being designed.

Roller-Compacted Concrete

This type of concrete has been placed and compacted with the assistance of earthmoving instrumentality like serious rollers. This concrete is principally utilized in excavation and filling wants. These concretes have cement content in lesser quantity and are stuffed for the realm necessary. once compaction, these concretes give high density and eventually cure into a powerful monolithic block.

(Video) Cement and Its Composition - Cement - Building Materials and Construction Technology

Glass Concrete

The recycled glass may be used as aggregates in concrete. Thus, we tend to get concrete of recent times, glass concrete. This concrete can increase the aesthetic appeal of concrete. They can give long strength and higher thermal insulation.

The use of recycled glass in concrete has become more popular in recent years. It has been used as a decorative aggregate, to provide a sparkle effect in concrete countertops and flooring. It is also used as a partial replacement for traditional aggregates in concrete.

There are a number of benefits to using recycled glass in concrete. It is a sustainable material that can help reduce the demand for traditional aggregates. It is also lighter than traditional aggregates, which can reduce the overall weight of concrete. Additionally, it can provide a unique look to concrete.

However, there are a few challenges to using recycled glass in concrete. It is a difficult material to work with and can be difficult to get a consistent color. Additionally, it is more expensive than traditional aggregates.

Asphalt Concrete

Asphalt concrete may be a material, the mixture of aggregates and asphalts ordinarily accustomed surface roads, parking tons, and airports, yet because of the core of mound dams. Asphalt concrete is known as asphalt, blacktop, or pavement and tarmac or bitumen, macadam, or rolled asphalt in other countries.

Rapid Strength Concrete

As the name implies these concretes can acquire strength within a few hours once it's manufactured. Therefore, the formwork removal is created simply and the building construction is roofed quickly. These have a widespread application within road repairs, as they'll be reused once in some hours.

Polymer Concrete

In polymer concrete, the aggregates are restrained with the polymer rather than cement. The assembly of polymer concrete can facilitate the reduction of the volume of voids within the mixture. This may cut back the quantity of polymer that is necessary to bind the aggregates used. Hence, the aggregates are ranked and mixed consequently to attain minimum void. This kind of concrete has totally different classes:

  • Polymer Impregnated Concrete
  • Polymer cement concrete
  • Partially Impregnated


The cement is replaced by lime during this concrete kind. The most application of this product is on floors, domes, likewise as vaults. These not unlike cement have several environmental and health advantages. These products are renewable and simply clean.

(Video) Concrete mix ratio - Various grades of concrete - Concrete mix design

Advantages ofLimecrete

  • Limecrete is a more sustainable product than cement since it is made from renewable materials.
  • Limecrete is also much easier to clean than cement since it does not absorb dirt and stains as easily.
  • Limecrete is also much cooler than cement, making it more comfortable to walk on in hot weather.

Disadvantages of Limecrete

  • Limecrete is not as strong as cement, so it is not suitable for all applications.
  • Limecrete can also be more expensive than cement since it is not as widely available.

Light-Transmitting Concrete

Concrete that has a density lesser than 1920kg/m3 is classified as lightweight concrete. The utilization of lightweight aggregates in a concrete style can provide us with lightweight aggregates. Aggregates are the vital part that contributes to the density of the concrete. The samples of lightweight aggregates are stone, perlites, and scoria. The lightweight concrete is applied for the protection of steel structures and is used for the development of long-span bridge decks. These are used for the development of the building blocks.

To conclude, concrete is the basic need for building or other constructional works. Thus, the knowledge of different types of concrete should use wisely by consumers to take advantage of its properties for their construction engagements.


What is concrete and its composition? ›

Concrete consists of a solid and chemically inert particulate substance, called aggregate (usually sand and gravel), bonded together by cement and water.

What is concrete and types of concrete? ›

Concrete is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens (cures) over time. Concrete is the second-most-used substance in the world after water, and is the most widely used building material.

What are the 3 compositions of concrete? ›

Concrete is made up of three basic components: water, aggregate (rock, sand, or gravel) and Portland cement. Cement, usually in powder form, acts as a binding agent when mixed with water and aggregates.

What are the 5 composition of concrete? ›

Concrete is a mixture of cement, air, water, sand, and gravel–it's as simple as that!

What are the 3 types of concrete? ›

This article will explore the three most common types of concrete: cast-in-place, precast, and prestressed. Cast-in-place concrete is the most common type of concrete used in construction. It is made by casting a mixture of cement, water, and aggregate (stones, rocks, etc.) in a mold into the desired shape.

What is the basic composition of concrete? ›

Concrete is made up of two components, aggregates and paste. Aggregates are generally classified into two groups, fine and coarse, and occupy about 60 to 80 percent of the volume of concrete. The paste is composed of cement, water, and entrained air and ordinarily constitutes 20 to 40 percent of the total volume.

What is Type 1 and Type 2 concrete? ›

Type I is a general purpose portland cement suitable for most uses. Type II is used for structures in water or soil containing moderate amounts of sulfate. Type II(MH) is a moderately sulfate resistant cement that also generates moderate heat during curing.

What is the most common type of concrete? ›

Standard ready-mix concrete is the most common form of concrete. It is prepared for delivery at a concrete plant instead of mixed on the construction site, which guarantees the quality of the concrete.

How many basic types of concrete are there *? ›

Typically, there are twenty-four different types of concrete used in the building and construction industry depending on the type of construction.

What is Type 3 concrete used for? ›

TCC. 100722 PRODUCT DESCRIPTION Portland Cement Type III is a low-alkali, special purpose hydraulic cement used to make concrete for a variety of building construction, repairs, grouts, or mortar applications where higher early strength than Type I-II Portland is needed.

How many types of concrete mix are there? ›

Designed Mix Ratio of Concrete
Concrete GradeMix RatioCompressive Strength
M7.51 : 4 : 81087 psi
M101 : 3 : 61450 psi
M151 : 2 : 42175 psi
M201 : 1.5 : 32900 psi
15 more rows
Nov 15, 2011

What is Type 5 concrete used for? ›

Type V Portland cement is used when concrete needs to have resistance to high levels of sulfates in the surrounding soils, along with a minimum ratio of water to cementitious materials as specified in the American Concrete Institute requirements.

What is concrete in simple words? ›

concrete • \kahn-KREET\ • adjective. 1 : naming a real thing or class of things 2 : formed by coalition of particles into one solid mass 3 : relating to or involving specific people, things, or actions rather than general ideas or qualities 4 : relating to or made of concrete.

What are the four types of concrete? ›

5 Types Of Concrete You Should Know About
  • Reinforced Concrete.
  • Lightweight Concrete.
  • High-Strength Concrete.
  • High-Performance Concrete.
  • Precast Concrete.
Sep 6, 2019

What is Type 4 concrete used for? ›

Type IV cement generates less heat during hydration and curing than ordinary Type I portland cement. When conducting mass pours or casting large-volume concrete products, Type IV cement is often used to lessen the amount of heat generated and reduce the risk of flash setting or thermal shock.

What is the composition of high strength concrete? ›

Pozzolans, such as fly ash and silica fume, are the most commonly used mineral admixtures in high-strength concrete. These materials impart additional strength to the concrete by reacting with portland cement hydration products to create additional C-S-H gel, the part of the paste responsible for concrete strength.

What are all the materials for concrete? ›

The principal ingredients that make up the concrete mix are: cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, water, chemical admixtures, and mineral admixtures. Concrete used in construction may also contain reinforcing bars, welded wire fabric (wire mesh), and various reinforcing fibers.

Which grade concrete is the strongest? ›

Large structures have high strength requirements, thus they go for higher grades of concrete such as M30 and above. The mix proportions of these concretes are based on mix design.

Which are 3 basic types of cement grade? ›

Three different grades of Ordinary Portland cement are available in the Indian market, which are grade 33 (IS:269), grade 43 (IS:8112), and grade 53 (IS:12269). Grade 33 uses M20 grade concrete and is used for plastering. Grade 43 is applied for precast, plastering, and flooring. It uses M30 concrete.

What is the grade of 1 2 4 concrete? ›

Answer ( 1 )
Concrete GradeMix Ratio
M151 : 2 : 42175 psi
M201 : 1.5 : 32900 psi
Standard Grade of Concrete
M251 : 1 : 23625 psi
15 more rows
May 10, 2022

What type of concrete is best for driveway? ›

Portland Cement: Portland cement is a material commonly used to create concrete. It acts much like a strong glue, providing a reliable bond that makes it a popular choice for laying driveways and pathways.

What is the best thickness of concrete? ›

The usual thickness of a concrete slab is around 10 cm; however, any concrete slab should be a minimum of 5 cm (a 4-inch slab) in thickness no matter what the application.

What is the most important material in concrete? ›

Modern concrete was born in the early nineteenth century, with the discovery of Portland cement, the key ingredient used in concretes today.

What is Type 1 concrete used for? ›

This type of cement is used to build sidewalks, pave the roads, build reinforced concrete bridges, railroads, reservoirs, water pipes and produce mixed mortar to economize.

What is Type 2 concrete used for? ›

Type 2 - Is used for structures in water or soil containing moderate amounts of sulfate, or when heat build-up is a concern. Type 3 - High early strength. Used when high strength are desired at very early periods.

What is Type 2 concrete? ›

Type II is a moderate sulfate resistant cement, important when concrete is cast against soil that has moderate sulfate levels, but irrelevant to concrete countertops. Type III is a high early strength cement. It is ground finer and reacts faster than Type I, so the early compressive strength gains are greater.

What is the best mix for concrete? ›

The safest bet for any concrete mix is four-two-one: four parts crushed rock; two parts sand; and one part cement. The four-two-one mix, obviously, has seven parts. Conveniently, when mixing concrete, the ratio can be mixed on any range of scales.

What grade of concrete is best for foundation? ›

C25 standardised mix concrete or ST2 Concrete is widely versatile and used in numerous commercial and domestic projects. It is commonly used for footings and foundations, including mass concrete fill, trench fill and reinforced fill, as well as general groundworks.

What is grade 10 concrete used for? ›

C10 Concrete Grade

Typical uses for C10 mixtures are in trench fills, agricultural formations, general floor binding, and drainage.

What are the 7 grades of concrete? ›

In IS: 456-1978, the different grades of concrete are given as M10, M25, M20, M25, M30, M35, and M40.

What does class C concrete mean? ›

C-1 Structurally reinforced concrete exposed to chlorides with or without freezing and thawing conditions. Examples: bridge decks, parking decks and ramps, portions of marine structures located within the tidal and splash zones, concrete exposed to seawater spray, and salt water pools.

What is the most important property of concrete? ›

The compressive strength of concrete is considered one of the most important structural properties it has. As an industrial standard, concrete is classified by different grades. These grades are based on the compressive strength of the material when a specimen of it is made into a cube or a cylinder.

What is the quality of a good concrete? ›

A concrete is said to be of good quality, if it is strongest, densest, most workable and most economical for the job for which it is prepared. Amount of cement used in concrete should be low and that of aggregate should be high.

What is concrete example example? ›

Concrete examples are specific, real-life examples used to illustrate an idea. They can be useful in helping participants grasp abstract concepts because they present the conceptual elements in a recognizable context. Concrete examples can be verbal descriptions, stories, actual objects (realia), and models.

What are concrete examples '? ›

Definition: Taking an abstract concept and creating an example based off real-life experiences to solidify the meaning of the concept. For example, a “quarter” could be thought of as taking one slice of pizza out of four equally sized slices.

What is a concrete answer? ›

You use concrete to indicate that something is definite and specific. I had no concrete evidence. There were no concrete proposals on the table. Synonyms: specific, precise, explicit, definite More Synonyms of concrete.

What is the simple definition of concrete? ›

: a hard strong building material made by mixing a cementing material (such as Portland cement) and a mineral aggregate (such as sand and gravel) with sufficient water to cause the cement to set and bind the entire mass.

What is the material of concrete? ›

The principal ingredients that make up the concrete mix are: cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, water, chemical admixtures, and mineral admixtures. Concrete used in construction may also contain reinforcing bars, welded wire fabric (wire mesh), and various reinforcing fibers.

How do you explain concrete? ›

In its simplest form, concrete is a mixture of paste and aggregates. The paste, composed of portland cement and water, coats the surface of the fine and coarse aggregates. Through a chemical reaction called hydration, the paste hardens and gains strength to form the rock-like mass known as concrete.

What is the mix to make concrete? ›

In terms of the ratio for concrete, it depends on what strength you are trying to achieve, but as a general guide a standard concrete mix would be 1 part cement to 2 parts sand to 4 parts aggregates. For foundations, a mix of 1 part cement to 3 parts sand to 6 parts aggregates can be used.

What is the main source of concrete? ›

Portland cement is the basic ingredient of concrete. Concrete is formed when portland cement creates a paste with water that binds with sand and rock to harden. Cement is manufactured through a closely controlled chemical combination of calcium, silicon, aluminum, iron and other ingredients.

How many types of concrete are there? ›

Typically, there are twenty-four different types of concrete used in the building and construction industry depending on the type of construction.

What is concrete and why is it important? ›

Concrete is a building material that gains strength over time. Concrete's 100-year service life conserves resources by reducing the need for reconstruction. Concrete is durable – it resists weathering, erosion and natural disasters, needs few repairs and little maintenance, adding up to a solid investment.

What is the most common concrete mix? ›

The most commonly used mix is cement, aggregates and water in the proportion 1:2:4. The density of this concrete is between 2200 and 2500 kg/cubic metre, whereas its compressive strength is in the range of 200 to 500 kg/square centimetres.

What is the strongest concrete mix? ›

C40 concrete is the strongest and most durable mix and for good reason townhomes for sale san diego. It can handle almost any abuse, including withstanding corrosion, making it ideal for farm-based and laboratory environments.

What is the formula for concrete? ›

Calculating the volume for concrete requires using three dimensions: length times width (which is area) times the height (thickness) or L x W x H. If you are using feet as your standard unit of measurement, this formula will give you the volume of concrete in cubic feet.


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